Sugarcane

Egypt


1)    Relation to temperature

  •   Heat requirements of sugarcane are rather high.
  • Throughout its vegetation (except the maturation period) the optimum mean daily temperature necessary for yield formation should be 25 to 30 C.
  •  If it drops to 15-18 C, the plants retard their growth and their photosynthetic activity is attenuated.
  • During the last period (2-3 months) sugar accumulates more rapidly at lower temperature (18-22 C).
  • Under conditions typical of the subtropics, even lower temperature may prove to be good for growing early-ripening varieties of this crop.

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2. Relation to moisture

  • The sugarcane is a moisture-loving plant.
  • In the region of the humid variable tropics where the rainfall is at least 1300-1500 millimeters per year, it is cultivated within irrigation.
  • The annual distribution of rainfall in the major centers of sugarcane cultivation has a distant seasonal pattern.
  • As much as 30% of annual rainfall occurs in the dry season (lasting 4 to 7 months) and 70% in the humid season.
  • That is why, the planting time in each region should be selected carefully, so that the intensive growth stage of sugarcane coincides with the rainy season.
  • At this stage the crop uptake the largest amount of moisture (up to 820 cubic meters per month) and its transpiration coefficient may be reach 1200-1500.
  • The optimum soil moisture of sugarcane is 77% of field water capacity and never above 60% during maturation.
  • In the dry tropics and subtropics, sugarcane is usually cultivated only under irrigation.

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      Relation to light

  • The sugarcane is
  •  a photophylous (sun loving )
  • short-day plant.
  • When vegetating in cloudy weather,
  • the plant receive less illumination 
  •  synthesis of sucrose decrease
  • sugar yield decrease

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   Relation to soil

  • Sugarcane can be grown on various types of soils.

Continent

Countries

Soil

 

 

Africa

Ghana

Red

and black clay soils

Niger

Mozambique

Somali

 

Alluvial soils

 

 

 

America

South America

Alluvial-red and

Red-yellow laterites

 

Cuba

Red ferralitic

Yellow ferralitic

Brown siallitic soils

Philippines

And Hawaii

Red-yellow laterites

Asia

India

The Indo-China

 Peninsula

Red-brown

Red-yellow laterites

Alluvial-boggy soils

Australia

Australia-zheltozems

And Karasnozems 

 

Black and

 grey tropical soils

  • Suitable Soil
  • The highest yields are usually raised on loamy or clay soils which are sufficiently air and water-permeable, well drained and rich in available nutrients.
  • The sugarcane grows and develops better on soils with a neutral reaction (pH 6.5 to 7) .

  • Unsuitable Soil
  •       Thin soil with hardpan    

                    According to investigations in Cuba and Mexico, cultivation of this crop on thin soil with hardpan does not prove feasible.

  •      Humus-carbonate soil

               The humus layer on humus-carbonate soil underlain with limestone should be not less than 20 centimeters, and on other soils less than 30 centimeters.

  •       Stony soil

               Completely unfit for sugarcane cultivation are stony soil with over 40% stones in the arable layer.

  • Overmoistened soils

           Overmoistened soils should be avoided for sugarcane plantations. 

  • Bogged or water-permeated soil

               Sugarcane cuttings do not germinate at all or they produce weakly developed shoots which soon perish on bogged or water-permeated soil.

  • Groundwater table

               *When the groundwater table is high (less than 1.8 meters from the soil surface), the growth and development of sugarcane plants are suppressed.

              * The groundwater table on well drained soils is usually  3-4 meters deep. 

  • pH

           * But it is also raised on weakly acid soils  (pH 5.5 to 6).

           * It is not recommended to cultivate sugarcane on acid soils (pH 5.0) without liming.

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